Wednesday, January 14, 2015

The Vitalism of Naturopathy:

[click here, to return to the main document, http://naturocrit.blogspot.com/]
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Caldwell, I.M. (? ?), Kayne, S.B. (? ?) state:
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[in "Homeopathic Pharmacy: Theory and Practice" (2006, 2nd ed.)]
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"the vital force [...] underpinning homeopathy (and other complementary disciplines) is a vitalist philosophy, according to which the living organism is subject to 'laws' that are very different from those found in physics, chemistry, or the biological sciences [p.149...] homeopaths consider disease to be an expression of the 'vital force' (also known as the 'life force') of each individual [...] all individuals are quite different in their expression of the vital force [...] the concept of 'vital force,' a vibrating dynamic element, with an inherent, underlying bioenergetic quality that has been likened to the Chinese 'chi' or the Japanese 'ki' [...] vitalism has a long history in medicine [...aka] physis [...] Galen also promoted the idea of a vital force. Paracelsus called it 'archeus.' Hahnemann introduced the word 'dynamis' to describe the vital force [...aka] 'field concept' [...] according to vitalism, the body comprises a hierarchy of parts [...] whose relationship to one another is controlled by a steering entity -- the vital force [...] the vital force is thought to be responsible for the orderly and harmonious running of the body and for coordinating the body's defenses against disease. It dominates life processes within the biological environment and controls the quality of the body's vibration [...] if the force becomes disturbed [...] then illness results [...] signs and symptoms [...] represent the healing activity of the vital force, which can be stimulated by the administration of the appropriate remedy [...] the vital force operates on three levels or planes [p.150...] it is postulated that the resonance of the homeopathic remedy affects the resonance of the vital force [...] the vital force [p.151...] the vital force is temporarily depressed [...] the administration of a homeopathic remedy seeks to provide the stimulus for the vital force to reverse its downward trend [...] like many of life's ethereal mysteries, we cannot be more specific about the nature of the vital force, other than to say that it is not a material phenomenon [p.152...] in terms of the vital force [p.154...] a response to illness by the vital force [...] where the vital force is hopelessly overwhelmed [p.156...] homeopathy is thought to be effected through with a nebulous 'vital force' that cannot be demonstrated [p.161...] an antidote competes for an existing remedy's area of influence by interfering with its effects on the vital force [...] will interfere with the vibrational pattern of the vital force [p.206...] the vital force is young and strong [p.236...] anthroposophical medicine [...believes in] a life force that maintains the physical body functions [p.255]";
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(ISBN 0443101604)
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Casey, A. (? ?), Mantle, F. (? ?) states:
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[in "Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Child and Adolescent Care" (2004)]
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"the philosophy behind CAM interventions [...] vitalism is a key concept behind the healing power of CAM. This idea of a vital force [p.005...] some sort of life force was responsible for differentiating humans from inorganic matter [...] the concept of a 'vital force' [...] the concept of 'energy' [...] this energy is seen as vital for restoring and maintaining health [p.006]";
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(ISBN 075065175X)
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Cashman, P.T. (? ?) states:
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[in “The Circle Of Lenapehoking” (2003)]
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manitou can also be a spirit energy [...] it is called chi in China, ki in Japan, prana in India [...] Mesmer [...] worked with what he called animal magnetism. This was his word for manitou [...] this spirit power [...] chi (manitou) [p.120]”;
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(ISBN 1401091881)
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Castro, M. (? ?) states:
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[in "The Complete Homeopathic Handbook..." (1991)]
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"vital force. Homeopaths believe there is a balancing mechanism that keeps us in health [...] this balancing mechanism Hahnemann called the 'vital force,' and he believed it to be that energetic [i.e. spiritual] substance, independent of physical and chemical forces, that literally gives us life and is absent at our death [spirit, soul!...] 'homeostasis' [...] the vital force 'defense mechanism' and 'immune system' are another way of referring to the vital force [...] disease 'attacks' only when this vital force is weakened [...] homeopathic medicines act as a catalyst, the energy [spirit!] of the remedy stimulating the body's own vital force (its immune system or defense mechanism) [p.014...] homeopathic remedies affect the energy [spirit!] patterns or the vital force of a person and by so doing stimulate the body to heal itself [p.018...] vital force -- a term used by Hahnemann to describe the energy [spirit!] that animates all living beings. It is the vital force that is stimulated by the potentised [spiritized!] remedy [p.248]"; [...] makes adjustments moment by moment throughout our lives to keep us healthy and balanced [...] familiar expressions such as
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(ISBN 0312063202)
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Chappell, P. (? ?) states:
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[in “Emotional Healing with Homeopathy: Treating the Effects of Trauma” (2003)]
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vitalizing force […] homeopaths consider that we have a vitalizing force that organizes this energy, and that disease occurs when there is a conflict between desired vitalizing action and actual effect owing to dynamic energy blockages […per] quantum physics […] the blockages can be released by energetic processes, of which there are a multitude, including homeopathic remedies [p.093…] in quantum terms there is no physical reality […] our vitalizing force is our connection to god, we are god, or if you like, the energy of the ultimate intelligence of the universe that is all of every part of us. This godlike part of us, at the very core of us […] our inner god [p.094]”;
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(ISBN 1556434294)
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Charman, R. (? ?) states:
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[in "Complementary Therapies for Physical Therapists: A Theoretical and Clinical Exploration" (2000)]
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"the unifying concept that underlies much of the theory and the therapies discussed in this book is 'energy' [...] 'subtle energy' or 'bio-energy,' the 'chi' or 'prana' or 'vibrational energy' of the life force [...] when this 'energy' is 'blocked' or weakened, the flow of life force [...] becomes distorted and expressed as symptoms of disease [p.xvi...] energetic approaches to healing [...] 'healing energy' and 'life force' [p.004...] a guide to assessment and diagnosis in naturopathic medicine [...] return symptoms [...] simply the body's vital force self-healing [...] traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The main criteria of TCM is that the vital force, mentioned previously, is called ch'i and that there are two components of ch'i called yin and yang [p.039...] bioenergy [...] the life force, prana, or chi [p.071...] the chakra energy etheric body [...] acts as a receiver, assimilator, and transmitter of vital force (life energy, ch'i, ki, prana, odic force, etc.) via the chakras [p.079...] 'the nadis are symbolic of the petals of and fine roots of the flowerlike chakras that distribute the life-force and energy of each chakra into the physical body' [p.083...] 'reiki' means 'vital life force energy' [p.118...] of great relevance to homoeopathy is the concept of 'vital force' which is integral to the maintenance of bodily health [p.278]; system [p.078...via] the
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(ISBN 0750640790)
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Chase, P. (? ?), Pawlick, J. (? ?) state:
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[in “Healing With Crystals” (2001)]
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“the analogy of life force as a ‘sea of energy’ […] zero point energy […] Mesmer called it animal magnetism, Reich called it ‘orgone,’ and […] Reichenbach called it ‘odic force.’ This energy was called ‘prana’ in the Hindu tradition and ‘chi’ in the Chinese tradition. In this book we will call it ‘life force energy,’ the ‘raw stuff’ out of which we are made […] life force energy is also known to have healing qualities. The Chinese system of acupuncture is based on the flow of chi energy through the body. The ancient Indian system of ayurvedic medicine utilizes prana as a healing force […] if we are able to incorporate more life force energy into our being on all levels, we will be healthier, happier, and more spiritually attuned […] thoughts are a form of life force energy […] weakly organized life force energy patterns that register like tiny ripples in the ‘sea’ [p.023…] clear quartz crystal transmits the healing qualities of life force energy [ p.025…] ‘everything on planet earth exists as an aspect of universal life force energy’ [p.032…] any imperfections can diminish the effectiveness of the crystal and alter the nature of the interaction between the crystal structure and life force energy [p.033…] when you breathe, you inhale and exhale life force energy [p.035…] crystals can be charged using the concentrated affirmation that they are filled with love and life force energy [p.037…] holding your breath helps to build the power of the life force energy [p.044…] depending upon the nature of the though, the subtle bodies either become more stabilized, structured, and filled with life force energy, or the opposite process occurs [p.062…] the layers of bodies of the aura also serve as transducers of life force energy. We receive life force energy from a variety of sources, including thought […] the meridians are another system transporting life force energy – much like a subtle nervous system […] by definition, a balanced energy field has an abundance of life force energy. When the crystal’s energy field has direct contact with our own, life force energy passes into the human energy system [p.063…] repeated negative thoughts disrupt or disorganize our energy fields, causing a restricted flow of life force energy [p.081…] you will be increasing the life force energy flow to the area as it moves from your negative receiving hand to your positive sending hand and into the body [p.090…] vital life force energies enter into the chakras. Life force energies also enter through the feet and hands, and trough the head, at the base of the skull and at the crown […] the more structured the water in our body becomes, the more it can act as an effective semiconductor for life force energy […] hold your pendulum over a glass of tap water and ask to be shown the strength of the life force energy in the water. The crystal will probably have more life force energy […] heating or cooling crystal water affects the life force energy [p.105…] the crystal amplifies the life force energy of the breath [p.112]“;
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(ISBN 1564145352)
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Chatterjee, D. (? ?) states:
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[in “A Pilgrimage Toward Self-Mastery” (1998)]
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“the physicians of ancient India described this invisible element that brought about the alchemy of collaboration within the human body as prana. In the general sense of the word, prana refers to the life principle. It also denotes energy, vital breath, power, or the animating force of the cosmos. The body is looked upon by these physicians as a microcosmic expression of cosmic vitality. Prana is the essence of the synergy of the body; it is the conscious intelligence that informs every cell of the body that it part of a larger whole [p.085...] the ancient masters of India recognized that breath is not an inorganic matter but an organic entity that integrates the functioning of diverse elements of life. They realized that prana, or vital breath, is the basic unit of energy that perpetuates life [...] this fundamental energy expresses itself in five primary life currents. These are prana (outgoing breath), apana (incoming breath), vyana (retained breath), udana (ascending breath), and samana (equalizing breath). Pranayama is the ancient discipline of regulating these life currents for effective living [p.182]”;
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(ISBN 0750698640)
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Chatterjee, T.P. (? ?) states:
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[in “Fundamentals of Homeopathy and Valuable Hints for Practice” (1988)]
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"vital force and the homeopathic system […] the omnipotent vital force which pervades the whole world in its animate an inanimate states and maintains harmony in them, is also equally present inhuman beings; and their so-called diseased state is nothing but disequilibrium of this vital force [p.001…] potentised medicine selected on the basis of the law of similars, given in the minimum dose just sufficient to restore, on long-term basis, the vital force [p.002…] a symptom is nothing but a manifestation, subjective or objective, of the struggle that constantly goes on between the vital force and the disease-state [p.007…] this restoration of the vital force to health takes place though the medium of a remedy selected by the physician […] it is through this remedy that the disharmony of the vital force in the diseased state is brought back to harmony, to dynamic equilibrium [p.053…] the vital force works through the various in-laid defense mechanisms […] it is not till the vital force is weakened that any disease develops [p.064…] the vital force which maintains the body in health equilibrium [p.067…] the vital force which is a composite of physical, mental, emotional and spiritual elements [p.082…] the mind is first affected by derangement of the vital force [p.093]";
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(ISBN 817021209X)
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Chernin, D. (MD ?, MPH ?) states:
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[in "The Complete Homeopathic Resource for Common Illnesses" (2006)]
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"the concept of vital force [p.xiv...] a vital healing force is always moving in the direction of greater overall balance [...] this healing force [p.004...] vital force. The concept of vital force is integral to understanding homeopathic medicine [...] vital force is not a biochemical entity [...] it is bio-electrical energy [...] it is that quality which animates living organisms and constantly seeks homeostasis and health in an inherently intelligent way [...per] underlying energy patterns [...] the energy pattern or vital force of these remedies [...] the vital force of people [...] homeopathy maintains that the vital force permeates all levels of human existence -- body, mind, and spirit -- and is similar to the energy stimulated by acupuncture needles [qi...] the vital force acting as the integrating factor [...] health people have a particular quality or pattern to their vital force, but when they become sick this subtle energy is distorted [...] this healing force [...] a harmonic resonance that helps to balance the person's vital force [...] homeopathic theory states that the vital force underlies these defense mechanism. If the vital force is aligned, then the [p.010] defenses maintain homeostasis; if the life force is disturbed, illness results [p.011...] a person's immune and nervous systems [...] homeopaths believe this interaction is coordinated in an intelligent, coherent way by the person's vital force [...] this underlying energy [...] the remedy activates the vital force [p.012...] the physical symptom represents the healing force's ability [etc. p.013...] through its effect on the vital healing force, a homeopathic remedy acts [etc. p.014...] the abstract and indefinable vital healing force of the organism [p.016...] when the person is very sick the vital force and immune system are not working to their full capacity [p.031]";
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(ISBN 1556436084)
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Chotkowski, L.A. (MD ?), Barrett, S. (MD ?) state:
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[in "Chiropractic: The Greatest Hoax of the Century?" (2002)]
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"'vital force' [...] see innate intelligence [...] a term 'alternative' practitioners use [...per] a non-material force that enables the body to function and heal itself [...] the concept that living things function because of such a force is called vitalism [p.196]";
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(ISBN 0965785521)
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Christian, J.L. (? ?) states:
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[in "Philosophy: An Introduction to the Art of Wondering" (2005)]
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"vitalism is the hypothesis that a special 'life-force' must infuse nonliving matter before it can come alive [p.375...] glossary [...] vitalism: the doctrine that a 'life principle' must suffuse itself (or be injected) into inorganic matter before life processes can begin. What this 'vital' element might be is usually unspecified, but it is often associated with the supernatural [...] teleology: from the Greek telos, 'finished' or 'complete.' The theory that deliberate purposive activity, rather than mere chance, is involved in some process [...] as though planned and guided toward a present end or ideal [p.617]";
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(ISBN 053451250X)
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Claire, T. (? ?) states:
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[in “Body Work [...]” (2006)]
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“Asian disciplines are based upon a concept of vital life force energy, variously called ch'i, qi, ki, or prana, which practitioners believe animates the body as well as all of creation [p.145...] the concept that a vital energy or life force (called ki in Japanese; ch'i or qi in Chinese; prana in Sanskrit) permeates the universe [p.150...] energetic bodywork: healing with the human energy field [...] energetic bodywork is the cutting edge of modern thought, where scientist, mystic and sage meet. Practices grouped under this heading have a common goal of influencing a subtle, invisible electromagnetic flow of energy that surrounds and infuses the body as is referred to as the human energy field. This life energy is known variously as ch'i or qi (Chinese), ki (Japanese), prana (Sanskrit), orgone (Reichian therapy), and bioplasm (Soviet research) [p.199...] energy [...] this principle is founded on the ancient Hindu concept of prana (the vital energy that is the Indian equivalent of ki) [p.205...] reiki is based on a universal life force energy. This energy, which surrounds and animates all of creation, is available for use in healing [p.237...] like other practices that heal with energy, it is based on the principles that a life force surrounds and permeates the physical body [p.269...] polarity therapy is at its core an energetic healing modality [...] Dr. Stone discovered, certain universal healing principles were at work: every individual is animated by a universal life force energy. Blockages in the circulation of this energy lead to disease and illness [...] our degree of health is determined by the relative freedom of the movement of this vital energy [...] Dr. Stone was deeply influenced by the Chinese concepts of ch'i [p.270...] acupuncture [...] the meridians are believed to be the pathways by which ch'i, qi, or ki, a vital life force, or energy, circulates. All illness is believe to result from an imbalance of the flow of ki. Acupuncture modulates this flow of this vital energy [p.304]”;
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(ISBN 1591201659)
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Clifton, C.S. (? ?) states:
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[in “Her Hidden Children: The Rise of Wicca And Contemporary Paganism in America” (2006)]
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“Reich [...] a psychoanalyst and maverick natural scientist, developed his own version of the persistent 'vitalist' theory – that a uniform energy pervades the natural world [...] Reich termed this energy 'orgone energy' [...] 'if orgone flow is unnaturally checked in an organism [...] disease will set in' [p.062...] Reich's vitalistic ideas were not completely new; they can be traced back to the Renaissance physician Paracelsus, among others [p.063...quoting Miller] concerning the invisible energy of nature: 'it has been called many names: animal magnetism, orgone, mana, prana, life force and the like' [p.064]”;
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(ISBN 0759102023)
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Close, S. (? ?) states:
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[in “The Genius of Homeopathy: Lectures and Essays on Homeopathic Philosophy With Word Index” (2nd ed., 2002)]
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“’life force’ [p.004…] the life force of the organism […] the inherent life force of the organism [p.018…] Hahnemann has heretofore been assigned to the idealists. In an attempt to be more definite he has been called a ‘vitalist,’ referring to the prominence given in the Organon to the doctrine of life and vital force […] vital force [p.033…] Hahnemann […] refers all the phenomena of health and disease […attributed to] ‘the dynamis’ and ‘the life force’ […which is] Hahnemann’s greatest discovery, and the absolute bed-rock of his system [p.040…] ‘dynamis,’ the life power, the substance, the thing itself, objectively considered; and ‘life force’ [p.042…] the final sixth edition of the Organon […] in this edition Hahnemann invariably uses the term vital principle instead of vital force […] ‘the vital force of the vital principle’ [p.043…] paragraph 9 of the Organon […] ‘the spiritual vital force (autocracy), the dynamis that animates the material body’ [p.073…] Hahnemann’s physiodynamical doctrine of the life force [p.083…] Hahnemann’s doctrine of the ‘vital force’ as set forth in the Organon [p.110…] Hahnemann says: ‘the vital force, capable’ [etc. p.153…] curative medicines reinforce the life force [p.164…] disease is a dynamical disturbance of the vital force [p.188]”;
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(ISBN 8170211085)
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Coddington, M. (? ?) states:
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[in "Seekers of the Healing Energy : Reich, Cayce, the Kahunas, and Other Masters of the Vital Force" (1991)]
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"this elusive yet universal force [...] a distinct force unto itself [...] the energy that heals [...] the Chinese ch'i [...] Hippocrates referred to [...] vis medicatrix naturae [...] it was called archeus by Paracelsus and animal magnetism by Anton Mesmer [...] odic force [...by] von Reichenbach [...] vital force of Samuel Hahnemann [...] Reich names it orgone energy [...] ki of the Japanese [...] prana of the Hindus [...] mana of the Polynesians [...] orenda of the American Indians [p.016...] a vital energy that heals [...] life force or vital energy [...] life energy. This vital force [p.019...] Hippocrates [...] believed in a healing energy, which he called the vis medicatrix naturae (the healing power of nature) [...] this vital force [p.048...] Bergson [...and] the life force, or elan vital [...] Palmer, the innate [p.052...] a known as vital force (or healing energy or innate) [p.095...] the Hindu life force prana [p.131...] ch'i, prana, orgone [p.167...] this energy -- call it orgone, ch'i, mana, prana, innate or vital force [p.170] the healing energy released through yoga is known as prana [p.176]";
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(ISBN 089281313X)
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Cohen, I. (? ?), Tagliaferri, M. (? ?), Tripathy, D. (? ?) {editors} state:
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[in "Breast Cancer: Beyond Convention" (2003)]
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"therapies like herbal medicine and acupuncture are designed to ‘achieve center,’ in part my manipulating the body’s own life force, or qi, to achieve harmony and health [p.014…] many people believe that the human organism is surrounded and permeated by a natural energy field, or ‘biofield’ – described as qi in China, or prana in India [p.327]";
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(ISBN 0743410122)
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Cohen, M.H. (? ?) states:
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[in "Future Medicine: Ethical Dilemmas, Regulatory Challenges, and the Therapeutic Pathways to Health Care" (2002)]
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"the notion of 'yin' and 'yang' in traditional oriental medicine, the idea of the 'innate' in chiropractic, the 'spiritual vital essence' (vital force) in homeopathy, and the 'prana' in ayurvedic medicine all reflect the unifying notion of vital energy [p.009]";
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(ISBN 0472088890)
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[in "Beyond Complementary Medicine: Legal and Ethical Perspectives on Health Care and Human Evolution" (2000)]
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"the biofield […] a living informational system […] the ideas of yin and yang in traditional oriental medicine, the ‘innate’ of chiropractic, the ‘spiritual vital essence’ in homeopathy, and the prana in ayurvedic medicine all reflect the unifying notion of vital energy [p.081]";
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(ISBN 0472111353)
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[in “Healing at the Borderland of Medicine and Religion” (2006)]
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“the idea that intention matters in healing in linked to notions of vital energy or spiritual energy in many CAM therapies, from chiropractic to acupuncture [p.076...] the concept of spiritual energy has correspondences in numerous cultures. Words such as chi, ankh, gana, ki, prana, pneuma, and waken all refer to a flow of vital force from a realm of spirit that infuses the material world with healing capacity [p.077...] the articulation of energy healing [...] helps describe a subset of CAM therapies linked by this notion of a unifying, healing spiritual energy. The concept of yin and yang in traditional oriental medicine, the idea of the innate in chiropractic, the spiritual vital essence (vital force) in homeopathy, and prana in ayurvedic medicine all reflect the unifying notion of vital energy embedded in consciousness. Thus, while the term 'energy healing' refers in a special sense to therapies aimed, via physical touch or thought, at transmission of intentionality or consciousness to heal, the term captures, in a broader sense, the common, vitalistic worldview underlying many CAM therapies. In this sense, many CAM therapies share common ground in that they involve spiritual notions of healing [p.124]”;
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(ISBN 0807830437)
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Cohen, M.R. (OMD ?. LAc ?), Doner, K. (? ?), Gish, R. (M.D. ?) state:
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[in "The Hepatitis C Help Book" (2007)]
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"qi, the life force [..] what animates matter [...] the difference between being alive and being dead. There are at least 12 different types of qi [p.021...] qi -- the life force [p.022...] qi: the basic life force that pulses through everything -- living an inanimate [p.291]";
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(ISBN 0312372728)
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Collinge, W. (MPM UC, PhD UC) states:
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[for a bio., click here, http://www.webmd.com/william-collinge]
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[in "The American Holistic Health Association Complete Guide to Alternative Medicine" (1996; I own this in hardcover)]
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"[specific to the naturopathy chapter, quoting Lust quote] 'one healing force [...] various forces' [...] the healing force of nature [...] 'congenial forces of natural therapeutics [...] these natural forces' [...] the vital force is seen as the preeminent factor in healing [...] below are descriptions of the major treatment modalities used in naturopathy [...] homeopathic remedies are natural substances used to strengthen the body’s vital force (life force, life energy), thereby helping the body to use its own resources to eliminate symptoms and illness. This is one of the more common specializations among naturopathic physicians [...] 'the vitality' [...] the unifying philosophy of naturopathy is contained in the following six principles: [#1] vis medicatrix naturae (the healing power of nature) [...] the healing process is ordered and intelligent [teleological...] the inherent ability -- the vitality [...this] healing process [...] the patient’s healing capacity [...] 'the vitality of the patient' [...] all practitioners share the common philosophy and principles described earlier [...which is] vitalistic [...a] vitalistic approach [...] the vitalistic school of thought is most closely aligned with the historic roots of naturopathy in terms of its emphasis on the body’s natural healing power (vis medicatrix naturae) [...] the vitalistic orientation [...that's] vitalistically oriented [...] the vitalistic approach [...] the vitalistic approach [ocr'd 2011-10-12

...and then vitalism as regards other sCAMs]

";
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(ISBN 0446518174 9780446518178)
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(for an amazon.com short review of this, click here,
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Cook, L. (? ?) states:
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[in "The Beginner's Guide to Natural Living" (2005)]
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"build the ‘life force energy’ […] in Oriental medicine this life force energy is known as ‘chi.’ It runs through all living things, and its unblocked flow through the body ensures optimal health [p.019…] vital life force (chi energy) [p.045…] there are two important components present in whole, raw foods that are critical to optimal health […] the electromagnetic life force that flows through all living things (in Oriental medicine this is referred to as ‘chi’ or ‘qi’) [p.084…] the ‘aliveness’ – this electromagnetic life force – in fresh produce […] the same life force that pulses through our bodies and gives us our energy […] cooking and freezing subdues it […] even most naturally process food is usually devoid of the original life forceelectromagnetic life force (sometimes referred to as ‘prana,’ ‘chi’ or ‘qi’ energylife force energy [p.103…] chi energy […] ‘vital life force,’ ‘qi,’ ‘chi,’ ‘prana,’ ‘divine essence’ […] it’s what animates all living things […] in Oriental medicine, strong chi is synonymous with excellent health […] a weakened or blocked flow of this vital essence is considered the beginning of all disease. Acupuncture is effective because it acts at this ‘energetic’ level […] this vital energy […] your life forceenergy (called chi or qi) is flowing through your body. Energetic flow is a precursor to biochemical activity [...] nearly five thousand years ago the ancient Chinese recognized a vital energy behind all life forms and processes [...an] animating force [that] controls the functioning of every organ and system in the body. The Chinese call this energy qi [...] chi is known as the 'life force' by shamans, as 'prana' by yogis, as 'bioelectric energy' [...] and the 'vis medicatrix naturae' ('healing power of nature') by modern naturopathic physicians [...] this life force energy must flow freely and in the correct strength and quality for the body to function correctly [p.152…] homeopathic remedies […] Hahnemann believed that dilution and succussion released a power that affected the life force energy at the [p.085…] the most unique aspect of fresh wheat grass is probably its ‘aliveness’ […it] abounds with an [p.098…] enzymes […] they are said to possess [p.133…] TCM [...and] acupuncture are based on an 'energetic' model of healthcare. A practitioner of this discipline is interested in how well subtle (spiritual or energetic) level [p.157] ‘all living things possess life force energy […] chi or prana […] a subtle type of life-giving energy […] flower essences capture and hold this healing life force energy’ [p.162…] eat raw produce because of the live enzymes and the ‘life force’ that fresh produce contains [p.188]";
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(ISBN 0975536184)
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(also click here,
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Cook, M.S. (? ?) states:
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[in “Healing Injuries The Natural Way: How to Mend Bones, Muscles, Tendons and More” (2004)]
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qi is the Chinese word for ‘life energy’ [p.097…] acupuncture […] works on several different premises, but the main one is the energy of the body, which acupuncturists refer to as ‘chi’ or ‘qi’ […] this energy, or life force, is found in the body, in air, water, food, and while it may be invisible, is proven to be integral to life. In Chinese philosophy, there a dualistic streams of life force energy, called ‘yin’ and ‘yang’ [p.135]”;
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(ISBN 1412030056)
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Cornell, L.H. (? ?) states:
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[in "Encyclopedia of Medical Astrology 1933" (2003)]
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"the life force, or prana [p.652...] vital powers -- (see 'life force' under life: vital, vitality) [p.659...] prana -- the Hindu name for vital force, life force, etc. [...] it is an etheric force [p.660...] force -- vital force -- vital power -- prana -- nerve force -- life force [...] prana, as it is called in Hindu philosophy [...] prana -- the Hindu term for vital power and vital force [p.918]";
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(ISBN 076614366X)
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Cortright, B. (? ?) states:
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[in “Integral Psychology [...]” (2007)]
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“what characterizes living beings is the vital principle, a vitality or life force (prana) than animates all living creatures [p.015]”;
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(ISBN 0791470717)
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Coulter, I.D. (PhD ?) states:
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[in “Chiropractic: A Philosophy for Alternative Health Care” (1999)]
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“a key part of the chiropractic paradigm […and] an underpinning a priori construct for virtually all alternative health-care paradigms, and for holistic medicine […] the metaphysical belief system known as vitalism. Within philosophy, vitalism has generally been portrayed as a failed metaphysic the vitalism in chiropractic [p.xiv…] a metaphysical construct […] the ultimate nature of the world (universal intelligence) and of the human body (innate intelligence) […that] the universe is the reflection of an intelligent life force, and that this life force finds its expression in the human body through innate intelligence. Innate intelligence is captured in the concept vis medicatrix naturae, the innate tendency of the body to heal itself. The notion of the innate is clearly an a priori assumption that cannot be subjected to testing [p.004…] a metaphysical belief that postulates that the body can heal itself through a life force called, in this instance, innate intelligence (or just innate) […] D.D. Palmer […] his metaphysical paradigm is just one expression of a much broader metaphysical belief called vitalism that was shared by most of the alternative health providers in the nineteenth century [p.013…] the metaphysic of vitalism [p.025…] chiropractics have used a variety of terms […] Bryner has noted that ‘innate intelligence, as part of a broader universal intelligence, is variously used interchangeably with soul, spirit, spark of life, vis medicatrix naturae, innate, innate potential, instinct, superconscious, nature, Christ-conscious’ […] a metaphysic [p.037…] vitalism has a very long history in the field of health. It accepts that all living organisms are sustained by a vital force that is both different from and greater than physical and chemical forces. In its extreme form, it assumes that the vital force is supernatural. For many followers of vitalism, the patterns of life and its apparent logic suggest the existence of a higher intelligence […] this metaphysical construct [p.038…] vitalism cannot be empirically investigated [p.039]”;
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(ISBN 0750640065)
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Cousens, G. (? ?) states:
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[in "Spiritual Nutrition: Six Foundations for Spiritual Life and the Awakening of Kundalini" (2005)]
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"life force, or prana [p.xvi...] life force (prana) [p.007...] another term of kundalini energy is prana [p.009] prana (life force) [p.013...] prana, or vital life force [p.041...] ojas (vital life force energy) [p.083...] this life force, this cosmic energy, this prana, is the god energy that is [etc. p. 172...] this cosmic energy or prana comes from god and [etc. p.182...] oneness with the universal life force and therefore oneness with our own divinity [p.187...] in the ancient Indian sciences[!?] of yoga and ayurvedic medicine [... ] subtle body subtle food energy is termed prana [...aka] in Chinese medicine it is called chi. It is known as ki in Japan, mana in Hawaii, tumo in Tibet, odic force by Reichenbach, and orgone by Reich [...] prana, or shekhinah energy, is associated with the vital life force in general [p.202...] vital force (health energy) [p.208...] prana, a term that most people are familiar with[?], can be considered the basic vital life force energy [...] the guiding energy behind the psycho-physiological functions [...] prana is also the driving force behind the deeper spiritual states of consciousness [p.372...] life force energy, or prana [p.382...] prana [...] vital life force [...] ojas [...] vital life force energy and reserve of vital energy [p.537...] universal prana [...] the cosmic life force [p.540]"; and
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(ISBN 1556434995)
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Coyle, N. (? ?), Ferrell, B. (? ?) {ed.s} state:
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[in “Textbook of Palliative Nursing, 2nd Ed.” (2005)]
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“overview of complementary and alternative therapies [...] alternative medical systems [...] instead of disease-oriented therapies, ancient systems of healing were based on attributing health, illness, and death to an invisible energy or life force and the suggestion of an interaction between the human body, human kind [sp.?, mind], the spirit world, and the universe [p.495...] the cornerstone concept in Chinese medicine is qi (life force) which is energy that flows through the body along pathways known as meridians [...] any imbalance or disruption in the circulation of chi or qi [...] is thought to result in illness. Restoration of one's health is therefore dependent on returning the balance and flow of the life force [...] qi, the life force, flows through the human body in vertical energy channel's known as meridians [p.496...] spirituality and religion. Our inner healer is enabled if we intensify our internal energy, life force, or prana [...] or qi [...] in Hebrew, this life force is called ruach, which also means wind, breath of life, soul or spirit – the mysterious unseen and irresistible presence of the divine being or the spirit of god [p.1026]”;
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(ISBN 0195175492)
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Creagan, E.T. (MD ?), Wendel, S. (? ?) state:
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[in “How Not To Be My Patient...” (2003)]
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“traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) target's the body's life force, or qi, through diet, massage, herbs and acupuncture [p.236]”;
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(ISBN 075730110X)
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Cross, J.R. (? ?) states:
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[in "Acupressure: Clinical Applications in Musculoskeletal Conditions" (2000)]
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"vital force [...] an invisible life force energy called ch'i [p.002...] ch'i [...] one interpretation of vital or life force [p.003...] the vital force in Japanese is called ki [p.008...] philosophers and vital force [...] what the Chinese call ch'i, the Japanese call ki and the Indians call prana -- in other words, vital or life force [...] Pythagorus[sp.] called this life energy pneuma [...] Hippocrates [...] called the energy medicatrix naturae [...] Paracelsus [...] archeus [...] Mesmer animal magnetism [p.009...] Reichenberg [...] od or odic force [...] Reich [...] orgone energy [p.010...] 'energy medicine' [...] various philosophers and cultures down the ages have called it -- names ranging from medicatrix naturae and ch'i to prana and odic force [...] vital or life force [p.059...] life force see vital force [p.182]";
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(ISBN 0750640545)
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[in "Acupressure and Reflextherapy in the Treatment of Medical Conditions..." (2001)]
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"the naturopathic assessment of disease [...] disease is therefore considered an imbalance of vital force within and without the human frame. This is a fundamental precept, with it the nature of disease becomes clear. If any kind of unnatural, perverse, or altered states of energyvital force [p.026] different names and meanings [...] Hippocrates called it 'medicatrix naturae,' Paracelsus called it 'archeus,' Mesmer called it 'animal magnetism,' Von Reichenberg called it 'odic force,' Palmer called it 'innate.' Traditional Eastern therapies know it as prana, ki, or chi [...and per homeopathy] dynamis or vital force [p.027...] it is the vital force of the human body that is changed by remedies [...per] energy medicine are introduced into the body, dis-ease will ensue. Philosophers down the ages have given this [p.028]";
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(ISBN 0750649623)
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[in "Healing With the Chakra Energy System: Acupressure, Bodywork, And Reflexology for Total Health" (2006)]
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"the etheric body [...] acts as a receiver, assimilator, and transmitter of vital force via the chakras [p.008...] vital force [...] this force has been called prana, chi, ki, medicatrix naturae, odic force, huna, animal magnetism, pneuma, archaeus, universal energy, and life force, just to mention a few [p.011...] vital force, or chi [p.012...] vital force, or chi energy [...] vital force, or life force [...] vital force, namely, chi [p.036...] basic life energy, or vital force [p.037...] vital force or energy called innate [p.112...] ki. See vital force [p.299...] prana. See also vital force [p.301]";
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(ISBN 1556436254)
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Cuellar, N.G. (? ?) states:
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[in "Conversations in Complementary and Alternative Medicine" (2006)]
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"[per Hisghman, V. (? ?)] acupuncture [...] how does it work? [...] qi (Chinese) or ki (Japanese), pronounced chi (chee), is the word that describes the vital life force. The life force animates the body [...] qi flows through the meridians and to the degree that the qi is strong, free flowing, and balanced the individual is healthy [p.179 etc.]";
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(ISBN 0763738883)
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Cunningham, A. (? ?) states:
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[in "Gentle Yoga for Healing: Mind Body Spirit" (2003)]
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"breath is our life force [p.013...] prana (life force). The Sanskrit word prana means breath, energy, and life force [...] prana is the vital life force that pervades all existence [...] prana is evident and moves through all of life [p.015...] prana, the vital life-force energy [...] prana life energy [p.091...] prana (breath, energy, life force) [p.143]";
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(ISBN 0806945842)
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Cunningham, S. (? ?) states:
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[in "Cunningham's Encyclopedia of Magical Herbs" (2000)]
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"the basis of herb magic – and all magic – is the power […] the power is that which generated and maintains the universe […] in other words, the power is the life-force, the stuff of creation […] it has been deified and anthropomorphized into a thousand-thousand gods and goddesses, spirits, demons and other unearthly beings […] magic is the practice of causing change through the use of powers not yet defined or accepted by science […i.e.] my herb-fortified psychic [p.003] powers [p.004]";
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(ISBN 0875421229)
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Curry, D. (PhD ?) states:
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[of Bastyr University]
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"perhaps it can be said that several things might be healed by an experience of healing presence. Among these, I hypothesize, are the person's [...] depleted vital force, or condition of deficient, excessive, or stuck qi";
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(click here,
(archived here,
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[in “Healing Presence as a Therapeutic Phenomenon”]
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“the healing presence as belonging to the vitalist tradition in medicine […] vitalism is the idea that there is a teleologic (vital) force operating in nature, and that this vital forcevital force has been linked to the sexual—that is, self-creative or self-healing---domain [huh?…] I propose that it may be the pulsating resonance of the vital force that is felt in a healing presence event. Vitalism is a doctrine of life force, one that for millennia has been irrepressible […] one contingent that served to drive vitalistvitalist tradition […] vitalism in the Western medical and philosophical traditions […is] currently enjoying a resurgence, particularly in the holistic health movement […quoting Koren] 'although it is often believed that vitalism is about life energies (anima, elan vital, prana, pneuma, chi, ki, life force, etc.) it is really about biological laws[bull; scientific laws are built upon overwhelming direct data and are empirical in nature, not metaphysical or idealistic or supernatural]. Vitalism states that the laws governing living organisms differ from those of lifeless matter [life violates to known physical laws…] the organism is reactive, at all times coping with, and attempting to overcome, the stresses which impinge upon it from outside. It behaves purposively' […] it was Driesch (1914) more than any other medical philosopher of recent times who outlined the principles of vitalism […] his emphasis on vitalism as ‘entelechy’—that is, as the purposive causal agent in the life, growth, and healing processes -- was primarily biological, if indeed colored by Aristotelian regard for the nature of the soul […] my interest in the vitalist tradition in medicine, and particularly in naturopathic and traditional Chinese medicine systems, looks towards the bridging of that tradition to an as yet unformed vitalist psychology that would connect the phenomenon of the healing presence to the dynamics of the vital force […] a vitalist position is also inherent in certain therapeutics such as homeopathy […] and flower essence remedies […] that go beyond simple mind-body medicine of stress reduction to a fully psychospiritual medicine of vital energy […] the range of ways vitalism has been defined lends confidence to my proposition that the vital force may be a type of bodily healing presence intelligence, that the doctrine of vitalism may be an older conceptualization of the relationship of consciousness to matter, and that the natural healing wisdom that naturopaths stimulate as the vis medicatrix naturae may be somatic consciousness, or mind-of-body […] it might be, for example, that what is felt in the body as the response to a healing presence is what naturopaths would call stimulation of the vis, or what in traditional Chinese medicine might be recognized as the unblocking of stagnant qi, or an increase of energy to counter deficient qi. Presumably if one is in a state of suffering, the vis or qi is depleted or stuck in some way, keeping the suffering in place. Encountering a therapeutic other who one experiences as a healing presence may be the catalytic agent needed to change the condition of the vis, or to balance and harmonize qi. It should be noted here that while vis, or vital force, is generally conceptualized as a unitary entity, a sophisticated construct of qi might posit qi as multidimensional, or that each thing has its own qi […] I might speculate that even if a healing presence operates to stimulate vis or release/increase qi in one realm, the change made in that realm then effects the condition in all other realms […] it appears that vital force may be, or be related to, a kind of mind-of-body in its purposeful intelligence of knowing what the individual needs for her or his healing […] mind of-body in healing is not the same thing as the mind-body concept in medicine, however, which according to […] is simply an extension of the biomedical model as long as it looks for mind as a property of the functions of the brain. seeks to sustain health, and thereby life. This philosophy underground was that of the medical interest groups and government who combined in the infamous Flexner Report [that is, medicine should be held to scientific standards…] of 1910 to disparage non-allopathic[!] approaches to healing in their zeal to upgrade standards of education in medical schools, which had a chilling effect on funding for research in chiropractics, naturopathy, homeopathy, and other healing systems whose principles were derived from or in accord with the Dossey insists that mind, or consciousness, is not merely a local, body-contained process, but that it is capable of nonlocal, non-brain based, even transpersonal and distant, awareness and operation. I tend to take a similar position that mind or consciousness is meta-organic; that is, not only not brain based and therefore not localized to the material body, but more properly considered beyond body, beyond space/time, process rather than substance, and intersubjective […] one modernist objection to the philosophy of vitalism was that no bodily substance or mechanism had been found that would be proof of the vital force, and without such empirical, positivist evidence, the theory of vitalism lost credibility in the Western medical science of the 20th century. However, another way to think about the vital force is that it may be subtle energy of some kind, and if so new thinking on subtle energies may shed some light on not only the vital force, but also on the felt experience of a healing presence [...] vital force, whether conceptualized in the Western tradition as vis or in the Eastern traditions as qi [...] the naturopathic medicine principle of the vital force and the vitalist philosophy in traditional Chinese medicine";
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(click here,
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[in a review at amazon.com of her own book “Healing Presence: Bodily Felt Experiencings[!] of Transpersonal Connection[!] in Naturopathic and Non-Clinical Settings” (2006)(ISBN 0741426390)]
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”naturopathic physicians talk about stimulating the vis (the vital force) as an essential step in every healing process […and in her ‘product wiki] vitalistically inclined researchers have called healing presence the felt experience of the vital force, the innate healing power of nature within us all”;
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(click here,
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